Download A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes, by Susan Featherstone PDF

By Susan Featherstone

A entire direction in Canning is firmly confirmed as a distinct and crucial advisor to canning and comparable methods. pros within the canning and scholars have benefited from successive versions of the booklet for over a hundred years. This significant new version maintains that popularity, with widely revised and elevated assurance. The three-title set is designed to hide all making plans, processing, garage and quality controls stages undertaken through the canning in a close, but obtainable style. significant alterations for the hot variation contain new chapters on rules and labelling that distinction the placement in numerous areas around the globe, up to date info on packing containers for canned meals and new details on validation and optimization of canning techniques, between many others.

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Extra resources for A Complete Course in Canning and Related Processes, Fourteenth Edition: Volume 2 Microbiology, Packaging, HACCP and Ingredients

Example text

4 Effect of temperature on growth of micro-organisms In actively growing stages, most micro-organisms are readily killed by exposure to temperatures near the boiling point of water; bacterial spores, however, are more heat resistant than their vegetative cells. Bacteria can be classified according to temperature requirements for growth. • Psychrophiles have an optimum between 12 and 15 °C but can grow up to 20 °C. • Psychrotrophs have an optimum between 20 and 30 °C but can grow as low as 0 °C.

Escherichia coli is a Gram-negative bacterium found in the intestines of all mammals, including humans. Escherichia coli bacteria produce toxins that can cause four different classes of illnesses that are of concern to the food industry. The first class is enterovirulent (EEC), and it causes gastroenteritis; this class includes E. coli O157:H7 (EHEC), which is enterohaemorrhagic. The second type is referred to as enterotoxigenic (ETEC), the third is enteropathogenic (EPEC), and the fourth is enteroinvasive (EIEC).

An offspring, they are a minimised dormant state of the bacterium. Endospores have a central core of cytoplasm containing DNA and ribosomes that is protected by an impermeable and rigid coat. They show no detectable metabolism and can survive extreme physical and chemical stresses, such as high levels of UV light, gamma radiation, detergents, disinfectants, heat, pressure, and desiccation. In this dormant state, bacteria may remain viable for thousands of years and can even survive exposure to the vacuum and radiation in space.

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