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By Inger P. Davis

This publication bargains with methods of aiding households take care of the trouble of rais­ ing young people. specialist social employees - in addition to different human ser­ vice execs - come across those households in different settings: baby welfare and kin provider organizations, hospitals, faculties, neighborhood psychological future health clinics, residential therapy facilities, juvenile halls and detention facilities, leisure and vocational education agencies, and so forth. whereas households from all walks of lifestyles could be present in those settings, households who've suffered the extra stresses of poverty, discrimination, and the results of actual and psychological affliction are ordinarily overrepresented. Even below the easiest of situations, the adolescent years frequently positioned the most powerful kin buildings to the try out - occasionally to the brink. a contemporary nationwide research of over a thousand standard, middle-income, ­ guardian households reviewed the strengths, stresses, and satisfactions of the relatives lifestyles cycle (Olson and McCubbin 1983). As many might anticipate, households with teenagers have been came across to adventure extra tension and reduce degrees of kin adaptability, solidarity, and marital and kinfolk pride than the other developmental degree. The households with teens who fared top have been people with such marital assets pretty much as good communique and clash solution abilities, pleasant sexual relatives, and reliable parent-adolescent communication.

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Causes of mental retardation include chromosome abnormalities; interuterine damage from infections, rubella, chemical and drug use, smoking, and malnutrition of the mother; birth trauma; head injuries and diseases 24 ADOLESCENTS: THEORETICAL AND HELPING PERSPECTIVES during childhood; and environmental and psychosocial disadvantages. Progress has been made in identifying causes of specific kinds of mental retardation, especially of the more severe forms, where genetic, medical, or traumatic factors prevail.

Social persuasion, that is, undermining or boosting the sense of efficacy by others. The undermining is easier to achieve than boosting since "[p]eople convinced of their inefficacy are unlikely to try challenging activities so they fail to develop their competencies and thus validate their inefficacy" (as quoted in Moore, 1981, p. 1(0). 4. The person's perception of his or her physiology and its vulnerability (physical arousal in stress situations) The concept of self-efficacy appears of particular importance during the adolescent years.

Yet in many cases etiological factors are still unknown (Dahl 1980). Even more so than for the physically handicapped, adolescence brings added stress and rejection to the mental retardates and their families. They develop the same secondary sexual characteristics and drives as their intellectually normal counterparts. They seek and need the companionship of peers, become vulnerable to sexual exploitation by peers and adults, and at times are easily talked into carrying out delinquent acts as the price for acceptance without comprehension of the consequences.

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