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By Paul Cheremisinoff

This addition to the Advances in Environmental keep watch over expertise sequence includes 23 chapters designed to supply an intensive assessment and reference on human physiological responses to varied kinds of toxins.

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Seafood is a common source of necessary elements. The anti-carcinogenic effects of an edible seaweed, Laminaria angustata, which is popular in Japan, may be related to its elemental content. Antimutagenic effect of these extracts was observed against a breast carcinogen on Ames/mammalian microsome system. Anti-tumor activity of various seaweed extracts tested on experimental animals was recendy reviewed. A correlation between anti-tumor effects of various fractions of Semicarpus sp. and concentration of some trace elements was reported.

Ca^"^ and Mg^"^ at 10"^m were stimulatory while Ba^"^ exhibited inhibitory effects at all concentrations. Levels higher than 10"^m inhibited phagocytic activity. SMOKING One of the well-documented risk factors of respiratory tract cancers is smoking. A positive correlation was found between the number of cigarettes smoked and mutagenicity of Salmonella typhimurium in urine. Even passive smoking (equivalent to two cigarettes) caused an increase in urinary excretion of mutagens in Wistar rats within 24 hours of exposure.

The mutation rates in these extracts were three times greater than expected by considering only the concentration of mutagenic poly cyclic hydrocarbons. The highest dose-dependent increase in mutagenicity by the Ames system was described for the 4-7 ring polycyclic hydrocarbons among all fractions of the petrol engine exhaust condensate of a passenger car. Traffic input on the air pollution is related also to increased concentration of N-oxides. A simple colorimetric method developed by Amaya for analysis of personal exposure to NO2 is recommended for field study about the time and spatial differentiation of this risk factor.

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