By Jill P. G. Urban, Robert J. Wilkins (auth.), Seisuke Tanaka M.D., Chiaki Hamanishi M.D. (eds.)
Basic examine on osteoarthritis has been performed almost always from the his tological and biochemical points of the degenerating chondrocytes, collagen fibers, and matrix proteoglycans. Undue mechanical pressure has been proven to be the relevant consider the initiation of osteoarthritis. even supposing the precise procedure during which mechanical rigidity ends up in the complete destruction of cartilage tissue continues to be uncertain, a number of new examine tools have enabled us to achieve a deeper figuring out of the method of degeneration. In October 1997, we prepared a world symposium titled "Ad vances in Osteoarthritis" in Kobe, with the most issues being up-to-date re seek, prognosis, and therapy of osteoarthritis. The lawsuits of the symposium are offered the following in 5 sections: (1) Mechanical pressure and reactions of chondrocytes, akin to intracellular ion alterations, adjustments within the cytoskeleton, intracellular messenger platforms, unlock of gasoline mediators, and adjustments in electromechanical houses of cartilage; (2) sensible prognosis of osteoarthritis via MR imaging, and utilizing calpain and collagenase III as new cartilage markers; (3) therapy with a promising basic washout process and IL-1RA and MMP antagonists; (4) Cartilage fix via new grafting tech niques; and (5) difficulties following overall joint alternative. We basically wish that the complex wisdom supplied during this quantity of lawsuits may be beneficial to our readers.
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Additional info for Advances in Osteoarthritis
Lansman JB, Hallam TJ, Rink TJ (1987) Single stretch-activated ion channels in vascular endothelial cells as mechanotransducers. Nature (Lond) 325:811-813 29. Duncan R, Misler S (1989) Voltage-activated and stretch-activated Baz+ conducting channels in an osteoblast-like cell line (UMR 106). FEBS Lett 251:17-21 30. Reich KM, Frangos JA (1991) Effect of flow on prostaglandin E z and inositol triphosphate levels in osteoblasts. Am J Physiol 261:C428-C432 31. Davis MJ, Meininger GA, Zawieja DC (1992) Stretch-induced increases in intracellular calcium of isolated vascular smooth muscle cells.
Furthermore, chondrocytes cultured in agarose gel, which synthesizes a mechanically functional extracellular matrix , may provide a more useful model system . The Flexercell Strain Instrument used in this study makes it feasible to observe alterations in chondrocyte metabolism, at the cellular level, especially in the signal transduction pathway. 44 K. Fukuda et al. We detected an increase and decrease in proteoglycan synthesis by chondrocytes under lower and higher stress, respectively.
Cells were seeded at a density of 2 X 105 cells/ml in 96-well plates. Different concentrations of phorbol ester (PDBu) were added for 24 h. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD of 6 wells. 01. Results were similar in two additional experiments 42 K. Fukuda et al. s 6 + + + SIres + Inhibilor FIG. 5. Effect of a protein kinase C inhibitor on stress-mediated inhibition of proteoglycan synthesis. Cyclic tensile stretch (stress) was loaded on the chondrocytes in the absence (-) or presence (+) of a protein kinase C inhibitor (H7, l,uM) for 24h.