By Mike Savage, African Forum for Children's Literacy in Science and Technology, Prem Naidoo
Economists, scientists, and educators world wide agree that technological know-how and know-how schooling is a prerequisite for modernisation and fiscal improvement. but, even though it is a vital part of curricula all through sub-Saharan Africa, a more-than-rudimentary snatch of technology and know-how lies past the achieve of such a lot African technological know-how and know-how schooling, a compendium of papers through major African and overseas educators, asks with compelling urgency, "With the millennium virtually upon us, can technology and expertise schooling meet the demanding situations of the arriving century?" this article presents a template for relevance, entry, redress, fairness and caliber in technological know-how and expertise schooling. It does so by way of integrating farsighted analyses and modern idea with modern realities and grassroots event.
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Additional resources for African Science and Technology Education into the New Millenium Mpn: Practice, Policy and Priorities (My New World)
Fur thermore, the development of science appears to go hand in hand with the development of economic and political hegemony — witness the riches created by contributions made by chemistry to the textile industry in Germany and Britain at the turn of the century. l(b): Selected science and technology indicators for Ghana and Uganda Ghana Uganda Estimated expenditure on R&D, 1993 (US$ millions) 4,67% 2,03% R&D expenditure as % of GDP (1993) 0,08% 0,06% R&D expenditure as % of government expenditure (1993) 0,40% 0,29 % 765 (2 772) 423 (1 350) Estimated number of researchers (1994) 850 800 Researchers per 10 000 labour force 1,59 1,03 (1990) (1994) 13,316 10,492 Percentage of higher education enrolments in S&T fields 42 % 59 % Balance of payments (US$ millions) in: 1988 1992 • high-technology goods -100,8 -114,3 • medium-technology goods -435,1 -176,6 • low-technology goods +395,5 -77,0 S&T publications & (citations) 1981-92 Number of students enroled in higher education (year) Source: UNECA, Development of Appropriate Science & Technology Indicators, 1995.
However, though a latecomer, discussion and expectations have been intense in Africa, especially during the 1960s and the first wave of decolonialization. 2 indicates, there is little to show for some 20 years of investment in science and technology, and continuing expectations have become something of a cargo cult. This chapter argues that the issue involves misunderstandings of the very nature of science and technology, of innovations, and of intellectual and economic hegemony. l(a): Rankings of Ghana and Uganda among developing countries, based on human development indicators* Ghana Uganda Human development index (1992) 62 80 Life expectancy (1992) 58 96 Access to safe water (1988-91) 61 95 Infant mortality (1992) 56 74 Daily calorie supply (1988-90) 79 87 Child malnutrition (1990) 65 62 Adult literacy (1992) 52 68 Mean years of schooling (1992) 44 76 Radios (1990) 26 65 Real GDP per capita (PPP$) 1991 75 70 GNP per capita (US$) 1991 63 91 *Ninety-seven developing countries were ranked to reflect their comparative performance on selected aspects of human development.
Attractive as this inquiry/discovery/problem-solving approach was, it was not without controversy. Bruner (1960), for example, states: Intellectual activity anywhere is the same whether at the frontiers of knowledge or in a third grade classroom ... The difference is in degree, not in kind. The schoolboy learning physics is a physicist and it is easier for him to learn physics behaving like a physicist than doing something else. Ausubel (1969) is of a different opinion: First, I cannot agree that the goals of the research scientist and that of a science student are identical ...