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By Douglas MacLean (Editor) Norman Daniels

This wide-ranging choice of essays via one of many prime scientific ethicists within the usa explores the declare that justification in ethics, even if of issues of conception or perform, includes reaching coherence or "reflective equilibrium" (as Rawls has known as it) among our ethical and nonmoral ideals. one of the sensible concerns addressed within the quantity are the layout of healthiness care associations, the distribution of products among the previous and the younger, and equity in hiring and firing.

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ICD-10 states that mental retardation is a condition of arrested or incomplete development of mind, which is particularly characterised by impairment of skills manifested during the developmental period, which contributes to the overall level of intelligence. It can occur with or without other mental or physical disorders. ICD-10 has been used, and is expanded on, in Chapter 3. Both AAMR and DSM-IV use a multiaxial method of classification. , 1992). DSM-IV is best defined by use of its guidelines (adapted from Muir, 1998): • Axis I: clinical disorders and conditions including specific learning disorders.

They tended to be experienced senior clinicians who had additional areas of specialisation (Partridge, 1994). Consultation Problems of interpreting views of people with learning disability about their future needs continued to be discussed. The necessity for accurate and acceptable terminology, which did not reflect professional or ideolog­ ical bias, was highlighted in meetings organised by the British Institute of Mental Handicap and the Department of Health (Harris, 1991). Cullen (1991) reflected the dichotomy that can arise and the problems of over­ simplification.

4 and see Chapter 2). An attempt to reduce frequency of change in terminology was made by the American Association on Mental Retardation in 1973. When it revised its definitions, it also defined aims for future develop­ ment and standardisation of a common base for classification of terminology. 4 (contd) memory, and thinking, and their deterioration as a result of pathological processes’ Mental retardation Mild: IQ: 50–70 – individuals who can acquire practical skills and functional reading and arithmetic abilities with special education, and who can be guided towards social conformity Moderate: IQ: 35–49 – individuals who can learn simple communication, elementary health and safety habits, and simple manual skills, but do not progress in functional reading or arithmetic Severe: IQ: 20–34 – individuals who can benefit from systematic habit training Profound: IQ: < 20 – individuals who may respond to skill training in the use of legs, hands, and jaws (WHO, 1980) Definition of mental retardation (Scheerenberger, 1987) 1983 USA (AAMR) 1983 UK ‘Mental impairment’: ‘a state of arrested or incomplete development of (England mind which includes a significant impairment of intelligence and social and Wales) functioning and is associated with abnormally aggressive or seriously irresponsible conduct on the part of the person concerned’ (Mental Health Act for England and Wales 1983) 1983 UK Mental handicap replaced mental deficiency but had the same general (Scotland) meaning (Mental Health (Scotland) Act 1984) 1992 WHO International Classification of Impairments, Disabilities and Handicaps ICD-10: mental retardation accepted terminology, but definition updated (see current terminology in Chapters 2 and 3) 1992 USA Mental retardation: accepted terminology but definition updated (see (AAMR) current terminology in Chapters 2 and 3) 1994 USA American Psychiatric Association DSM-IV: mental retardation: accepted (APA) terminology (see current terminology in Chapter 2) 1995 UK Learning disability accepted terminology.

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